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Aerodinâmica na Formula 1? A ciência invisível ganha mais corridas que os pilotos!

 

Num carro de F1 há duas forças principais, a que vem do motor (HP) e a outra força é o Downforce, que empurra o carro para baixo e vem da aerodinâmica de todo o monolugar. A ciência que estuda como o vento e atmosfera se comporta no carro a 300km/h  é fundamental; mais importante que isso, ganha mais corridas que os pilotos!

Quanto maior a velocidade, maior a força em que o carro é pressionado para baixo.

Um carro de F1 atual consegue gerar mais ou menos 2.500kg de força( o peso de um elefante adulto), Obviamente por culpa deste "peso extra" o carro perderá necessariamente velocidade, mas em compensação o carro garante mais tração, dado que os pneus fazem mais contato com o asfalto, as curvas e saídas de curvas ficam muito mais rápidas.

As esquadrias procuram insistentemente por melhoras nas peças de seus carros, com estudos que usam túnel do vento, replicas dos carros para testes, tintas flosforecentes e muito dinheiro, 1% em melhora na aerodinâmica final significa 0.1 segundo mais rápido em uma volta, um excepcional dia de trabalho dos engenheiros nessa área é justamente sair do trabalho com esse 1% a mais ao longo do dia.

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As peças mais importantes?

A asa dianteira: a peça mais importante para a aerodinâmica do carro, dado que se localiza na frente do carro, é ela que terá o primeiro contato com o vento. A Asa é responsável pela estabilidade do carro, cortar o vento para que não chegue até os pneus,

Na foto mais abaixo pode ver claramente isso

Esta peça faz com que o vento suba, tirando os ventos dos pneus e atirando-o o carro para baixo, por isso os engenheiros adicionaram mais uma função a esta peça, isso deixa o carro mais estável, nos treinos livres os pilotos procuram acertar o ângulo em que as asas ficam, cada meia volta na porca afeta todo o vento que circula pelo carro, tendo um ângulo mais próximo de 90 o carro tem menos downforce, deixando o carro mais rápido, porém mais lento nas curvas, é esse o acerto do carro que muitos falam, acertar o ângulo que tem o melhor custo benefício entre velocidade final e nas curvas.

Aerofólio:  tem basicamente a mesma função da asa dianteira, podendo ser ajustada também conforme o gosto do piloto. Com esse formato o vento bate e força o carro para o asfalto.

Há alguns anos, as equipas usavam um dispositivo chamado de difusor, existiram muitos tipos, simples, duplos, soprados e de redução. Ele basicamente redirecionava os gases da exaustão para um ponto específico, no final o carro ganhava mais downforce, em uma época esse único dispositivo garantia cerca de 0.3 a 0.5 segundos de diferença, ou seja, 5% a mais de performance.

Ref:Fernando Matssura A ciência do invivel: O papel da aerodinamica na F1!, tocedores

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